Scala

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6pfdm-gIZus
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LH75sJAR0hc

http://www.scala-lang.org/index.html
http://www.scala-lang.org/what-is-scala.html
http://www.scala-lang.org/documentation/
http://www.scala-lang.org/documentation/getting-started.html
https://www.coursera.org/course/progfun
https://typesafe.com/community/core-projects/scala
http://typelevel.org/blog/2014/09/02/typelevel-scala.html
https://github.com/scala
http://scala-ide.org/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scala_%28programming_language%29
http://www.forbes.com/sites/quora/2014/07/10/what-do-you-think-about-the-scala-programming-language/
http://www.infoq.com/articles/scala-java-myths-facts
http://www.infoq.com/news/2008/01/why-scala
http://www.tutorialspoint.com/scala/
http://www.infoworld.com/article/2609013/java/scala-founder--language-due-for--fundamental-rethink-.html
http://www.infoworld.com/article/2690907/java/frege-adds-to-java-functional-language-realm.html

What is Scala? Why should I use Scala?

Scala is a general-purpose programming language designed to express common programming patterns in a concise, elegant, and type-safe way. It smoothly integrates features of object-oriented and functional programming languages, enabling programmers to be more productive.

Object-Oriented Meets Functional. Have the best of both worlds. Construct elegant class hierarchies for maximum code reuse and extensibility, implement their behavior using higher-order functions. Or anything in-between.

Scala is an acronym for “Scalable Language”. This means that Scala grows with you. You can play with it by typing one-line expressions and observing the results. But you can also rely on it for large mission critical systems, as many companies, including Twitter, LinkedIn, or Intel do.

To some, Scala feels like a scripting language. Its syntax is concise and low ceremony; its types get out of the way because the compiler can infer them. There’s a REPL and IDE worksheets for quick feedback. Developers like it so much that Scala won the ScriptBowl contest at the 2012 JavaOne conference.

At the same time, Scala is the preferred workhorse language for many mission critical server systems. The generated code is on a par with Java’s and its precise typing means that many problems are caught at compile-time rather than after deployment.

At the root, the language’s scalability is the result of a careful integration of object-oriented and functional language concepts.

Scala runs on the JVM. Java and Scala classes can be freely mixed, no matter whether they reside in different projects or in the same. They can even mutually refer to each other, the Scala compiler contains a subset of a Java compiler to make sense of such recursive dependencies.

Java libraries, frameworks and tools are all available. Build tools like ant or maven, IDEs like Eclipse, IntelliJ, or Netbeans, frameworks like Spring or Hibernate all work seamlessly with Scala. Scala runs on all common JVMs and also on Android.

The Scala community is an important part of the Java ecosystem. Popular Scala frameworks, including Akka, Finagle, and the Play web framework include dual APIs for Java and Scala.

Scala is an object-functional programming language. Scala has full support for functional programming and a very strong static type system. Many of Scala's design decisions were inspired by criticism over the shortcomings of Java. Scala source code is intended to be compiled to Java bytecode, so that the resulting executable code runs on a Java virtual machine. Java libraries may be used directly in Scala code, and vice versa. Like Java, Scala is object-oriented, and uses a curly-brace syntax . Unlike Java, Scala has many features of functional programming languages like Scheme, Standard ML and Haskell, including currying, type inference, immutability, lazy evaluation, and pattern matching. It also has an advanced type system supporting algebraic data types, covariance and contravariance, higher-order types, and anonymous types. Other features of Scala not present in Java include optional parameters, named parameters, raw strings, and no checked exceptions. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scala_%28programming_language%29

Although Scala had extensive support for functional programming from the beginning, Java remained a purely object oriented language until the introduction of lambda expressions with Java 8 in 2014.

Scala runs on the Java platform (Java Virtual Machine) and is compatible with existing Java programs.

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