Salesforce - Developer - Visualforce - Global Variables

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https://developer.salesforce.com/docs/atlas.en-us.204.0.pages.meta/pages/pages_variables_global.htm

// Salesforce - Developer - Visualforce - Global Variables:

$User: Information from the currently logged-in user
$Organization
$Setup: Settings
$ObjectType: details about custom objects
$Action: actions available on those objects

We can use global variables to access and display system values and resources 
in our Visualforce markup. For example, Visualforce provides information about 
the logged-in user in a global variable called $User. 

We can access fields of the $User global variable (and any others) using an 
expression of the following form: 

{! $GlobalName.fieldName }.
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