OLTP (On Line Transaction Processing):

Current data
Short database transactions
Online update/insert/delete
Normalization is promoted
High volume transactions
Transaction recovery is necessary

OLAP (On Line Analytical Processing):

Current and historical data
Long database transactions
Batch update/insert/delete
Denormalization is promoted
Low volume transactions
Transaction recovery is not necessary

OLAP is more related to data warehousing, analyzing historical data.

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