Design Patterns - Transfer Object Pattern


Design Patterns - Structural - Transfer Object:

The Transfer Object pattern is used when we want to pass data with multiple 
attributes in one shot from client to server. Transfer object is also known as 
Value Object. Transfer Object is a simple POJO class having getter/setter 
methods and is serializable so that it can be transferred over the network. 
It does not have any behavior. Server Side business class normally fetches 
data from the database and fills the POJO and send it to the client or pass 
it by value. For client, transfer object is read-only. Client can create its 
own transfer object and pass it to server to update values in database in 
one shot. Following are the entities of this type of design pattern.

1. Business Object - Business Service fills the Transfer Object with data.
2. Transfer Object - Simple POJO having methods to set/get attributes only.
3. Client - Client either requests or sends the Transfer Object to Business Object.

We are going to create a StudentBO as Business Object,Student as Transfer 
Object representing our entities.

// Step 1: Create Transfer Object.
public class StudentVO {
   private String name;
   private int rollNo;

   StudentVO(String name, int rollNo){ = name;
      this.rollNo = rollNo;

   public String getName() {
      return name;

   public void setName(String name) { = name;

   public int getRollNo() {
      return rollNo;

   public void setRollNo(int rollNo) {
      this.rollNo = rollNo;

// Step 2: Create Business Object
public class StudentBO {

   //list is working as a database
   List<StudentVO> students;

   public StudentBO(){
      students = new ArrayList<StudentVO>();
      StudentVO student1 = new StudentVO("Robert",0);
      StudentVO student2 = new StudentVO("John",1);
   public void deleteStudent(StudentVO student) {
      System.out.println("Student: Roll No " + student.getRollNo() + ", deleted from database");

   //retrive list of students from the database
   public List<StudentVO> getAllStudents() {
      return students;

   public StudentVO getStudent(int rollNo) {
      return students.get(rollNo);

   public void updateStudent(StudentVO student) {
      System.out.println("Student: Roll No " + student.getRollNo() +", updated in the database");

// Step 3: Use the StudentBO to demonstrate Transfer Object Design Pattern.
StudentBO studentBusinessObject = new StudentBO();

//print all students
for (StudentVO student : studentBusinessObject.getAllStudents()) {
 System.out.println("Student: [RollNo : " + student.getRollNo() + ", Name : " + student.getName() + " ]");

//update student
StudentVO student = studentBusinessObject.getAllStudents().get(0);

//get the student
student = studentBusinessObject.getStudent(0);
System.out.println("Student: [RollNo : " + student.getRollNo() + ", Name : " + student.getName() + " ]");
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