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Phật Tổ: Phật Thích Ca Mâu Ni, Tất Đạt Đa.

Mẹ: Hoàng Hậu Mai À
Cha: Vua Tịnh Phạn
Vợ: Công Chúa Da Dua Đà La

His family's religion: Raman ( Đạo Bà La Môn )

He started his journey 500 years BC (Before Christ). He started by practicing severe self-punishment ( Hành Đạo ) meditation for six years, but then he realized that severe self-punishment would not lead to enlightenment. He then adopt medium meditation approach.

Phật A Di Đà

Sự chết không phải là mất hẳn (Thuyết luân hồi).

Bánh xe 6 cam (Lục đạo: 6 chỗ sau khi chết):

  1. Troi
  2. Người
  3. A tu la
  4. Địa ngục
  5. Ngã quỷ
  6. Súc xanh

Banh xe 12 cam: Banh xe tren noc chua: banh xe chuyen phap luan. Do la bieu tuong so chuyen phap luan o phuong nai cua duc Phat. Banh xe nay khong phai la 8 nang cam. Banh xe nay co 12 nang cam, de chi cho tam chi thap nhi hanh, tuc la 3 lan chuyen cua Duc Phat (so chuyen, thi chuyen, khuyen chuyen, va chung chuyen)

U Ba Li: A slave, who got accepted as a follower. He then became the person who keep the rules. Duoc xung la De Nhat Cam Gioi.

Đại Ca Nhip: A rich person. He has a wife.
Bac Da: Đại Ca Nhip's wife. She became the first female follower.

Tì kheo: female follower.

O trong rung, xa roi han the gian. Phai dua vao moi ngay di khat thuc de duy tri cuoc song. Doi tuong khat thuc khong the phan giau ngheo. Moi ngay chi duoc an mot bua com. Chi co the mac nhung bo do bi va diu. Tat ca nhung thu khac deu khong duoc mang theo. Va con nhieu qui luat nghiem khac.

Everything in this world is made from 5 things:

  1. Kim
  2. Ngoc
  3. Thuy
  4. Hoa
  5. Tho

The Bodhi tree: Cây bồ đề.

Tham, Sân, Si

Sá Lợi Phất
Mục Kiền Liên

Buddhists strive for a deep insight into the true nature of life and do not worship gods or deities. There is no belief in a personal god. Buddhists believe that nothing is fixed or permanent and that change is always possible. The path to Enlightenment is through the practice and development of morality, meditation and wisdom.

Buddhists believe that life is both endless and subject to impermanence, suffering and uncertainty. These states are called the tilakhana, or the three signs of existence. Existence is endless because individuals are reincarnated over and over again, experiencing suffering throughout many lives.

It is impermanent because no state, good or bad, lasts forever. Our mistaken belief that things can last is a chief cause of suffering.

There are numerous different schools or sects of Buddhism. The two largest are Theravada Buddhism, which is most popular in Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Thailand, Laos and Burma (Myanmar), and Mahayana Buddhism, which is strongest in Tibet, China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, and Mongolia.

The majority of Buddhist sects do not seek to proselytise (preach and convert), with the notable exception of Nichiren Buddhism.

The Four Noble Truth:

  1. The truth of suffering (Dukkha): Man's existence is dukkha, or full of misery
  2. The truth of the origin of suffering (Samudāya): This misery originates from within ourselves; it is our own selfish craving for pleasures that lead to suffering.
  3. The truth of the cessation of suffering (Nirodha): The realization that this misery can be eliminated.
  4. The truth of the path to the cessation of suffering (Magga): Strict discipline is required. Following the methodical path or the "Eightfold Path" to liberation from this misery. The Eightfold Path, a mean of overcoming this misery through rightness of belief, resolve, speech, action, livelihood, effort, thought and meditation, will lead the individual to Nirvana, or the end of the cycle (deliverance). A lack of adherence to these basic tenets reinforces the individual's attachment to the unreal "self", thus continue the relentless cycle of birth and rebirth.

In the first two Noble Truths, he diagnosed the problem (suffering) and identified its cause. The third Noble Truth is the realisation that there is a cure.

The First Noble Truth: Suffering (Dukkha)

Suffering comes in many forms. Three obvious kinds of suffering correspond to the first three sights the Buddha saw on his first journey outside his palace: old age, sickness and death. But according to the Buddha, the problem of suffering goes much deeper. Life is not ideal: it frequently fails to live up to our expectations. Human beings are subject to desires and cravings, but even when we are able to satisfy these desires, the satisfaction is only temporary. Pleasure does not last; or if it does, it becomes monotonous. Even when we are not suffering from outward causes like illness or bereavement, we are unfulfilled, unsatisfied. This is the truth of suffering (DESIRE).

Some people who encounter this teaching may find it pessimistic. Buddhists find it neither optimistic nor pessimistic, but realistic. Fortunately the Buddha's teachings do not end with suffering; rather, they go on to tell us what we can do about it and how to end it.

The Second Noble Truth: Origin of suffering (Samudāya)

Our day-to-day troubles may seem to have easily identifiable causes: thirst, pain from an injury, sadness from the loss of a loved one. In the second of his Noble Truths, though, the Buddha claimed to have found the cause of all suffering - and it is much more deeply rooted than our immediate worries.

The Buddha taught that the root of all suffering is desire, tanhā. This comes in three forms, which he described as the Three Roots of Evil, or the Three Fires, or the Three Poisons.

What are the three form of suffering?

The Buddha taught that the root of all suffering is desire, tanhā. This comes in three forms, which he described as the Three Roots of Evil, or the Three Fires, or the Three Poisons.

  1. Greed and desire, represented in art by a rooster
  2. Ignorance or delusion, represented by a pig
  3. Hatred and destructive urges, represented by a snake

Language note: Tanhā is a term in Pali, the language of the Buddhist scriptures, that specifically means craving or misplaced desire. Buddhists recognise that there can be positive desires, such as desire for enlightenment and good wishes for others. A neutral term for such desires is chanda.

The Third Noble Truth: Cessation of suffering (Nirodha)

The Buddha taught that the way to extinguish desire, which causes suffering, is to liberate oneself from attachment. This is the third Noble Truth - the possibility of liberation. "Estrangement" here means disenchantment: a Buddhist aims to know sense conditions clearly as they are without becoming enchanted or misled by them. Nirvana means extinguishing. Attaining nirvana - reaching enlightenment - means extinguishing the three fires of greed, delusion and hatred. Someone who reaches nirvana does not immediately disappear to a heavenly realm. Nirvana is better understood as a state of mind that humans can reach. It is a state of profound spiritual joy, without negative emotions and fears.

Someone who has attained enlightenment is filled with compassion for all living things. When he finds estrangement, passion fades out. With the fading of passion, he is liberated. When liberated, there is knowledge that he is liberated. He understands: 'Birth is exhausted, the holy life has been lived out, what can be done is done, of this there is no more beyond.'

After death an enlightened person is liberated from the cycle of rebirth, but Buddhism gives no definite answers as to what happens next.

The Fourth Noble Truth: Path to the cessation of suffering (Magga)

The final Noble Truth is the Buddha's prescription for the end of suffering. This is a set of principles called the Eightfold Path. The Eightfold Path is also called the Middle Way: it avoids both indulgence and severe asceticism, neither of which the Buddha had found helpful in his search for enlightenment. The eight stages are not to be taken in order, but rather support and reinforce each other:

  1. Right Understanding - Sammā ditthi
    1. Accepting Buddhist teachings. (The Buddha never intended his followers to believe his teachings blindly, but to practise them and judge for themselves whether they were true.)
  2. Right Intention - Sammā san̄kappa
    1. A commitment to cultivate the right attitudes.
  3. Right Speech - Sammā vācā
    1. Speaking truthfully, avoiding slander, gossip and abusive speech.
  4. Right Action - Sammā kammanta
    1. Behaving peacefully and harmoniously; refraining from stealing, killing and overindulgence in sensual pleasure.
  5. Right Livelihood - Sammā ājīva
    1. Avoiding making a living in ways that cause harm, such as exploiting people or killing animals, or trading in intoxicants or weapons.
  6. Right Effort - Sammā vāyāma
    1. Cultivating positive states of mind; freeing oneself from evil and unwholesome states and preventing them arising in future.
  7. Right Mindfulness - Sammā sati
    1. Developing awareness of the body, sensations, feelings and states of mind.
  8. Right Concentration - Sammā samādhi
    1. Developing the mental focus necessary for this awareness.

The eight stages can be grouped into Wisdom (right understanding and intention), Ethical Conduct (right speech, action and livelihood) and Meditation (right effort, mindfulness and concentration).

The Buddha described the Eightfold Path as a means to enlightenment, like a raft for crossing a river. Once one has reached the opposite shore, one no longer needs the raft and can leave it behind.

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